Type of solar collectors

Flat collectorThe flat collector was one of first type used in the past. The heat exchanger unit with absorber coating fixed on a copper tube was placed into the insulated aluminum plate. This copper absorber plate is designed to absorb the solar radiation and to transform it to heat. The produced thermal energy from the collector can be transported by a fluid circulated in a pipeline in order to generate hot water, or to support heating and pool heating. In order achieve a good efficiency it is critical beside a good insulation and the usage of selective absorber-to have the proper type of glass (special solar glass), with a high surface quality. We can increase efficiency with a generated vacuum in the insulated box.

Vacuum tube solar collector

The efficiency of this type is 20-30% better than the flat collectors. In winter time one can see this efficiency even more, since even 3x more energy production can be achieved. In winter time at a temperature of -10 °C it still generates hot water and can be used to support thr heating system. The core of the heat pipe tube system is, that in a double wall glass tube –where the inner glass surface is coated with a selective absorber-a copper pipe is inserted. The pipe is filled with a fluid with low boiling point and placed under vacuum. A condenser is attached to the end of the pipe. Around this condenser there is a specially designed pipeline, filled with defrosting fluid. The cooled steam will be condensed and will flow back to the bottom of the pipe and the process will start from the beginning. The other advantage of this system is that it not only works on maximum capacity if the sun is radiating in 90 ° toward the module ,but it has a good output at various angles ( like in the morning and afternoon) .

The usage of solar collectors

The solar collectors assuring hot water production, -due to Hungary’s good climate conditions-, are investments with a short return period. On average 60-70% of the households hot water demand can be covered by a properly sized solar collector system with an average of 250 days/year sunshine. Hot water is needed in every household, factory, restaurant and other facilities. The temperature of the cold water from the network is on average 10 °C and this can be heated even with low sunshine to a significant extent.
The heat which can be used during summer months with a solar collector is 3-3,5 kWh/day/m2, in winter time this is 0,5-1,5 kWh/day/m2. At the design of the system this quantity of generated heat has to aligned with the demand . 1 person uses approximately 30-50 liter of hot water a day, which needs 2,5-3 kWh of heat energy, in order to heat up the water from 10-12 °C up to 45-55 °C. On the summer months approx.. 1m2 of solar surface covers the daily usage of a person. This ratio is reduced in the winter time to 40-50%. Besides the collector the determination of the optimal volume of the hot water tank is important. The solar system works with good efficiency, if the produced energy during daytime is stored in the tanks and it is enough until the next sunshine period.

The practical usage of solar collector systems

To determine the size of the system the base in a family house is the number of residents, the volume of the tank and the needed surface of the solar collectors. If heating support is needed this has to be taken into account during planning. Heating support on summer can be used for pool heating. The most efficient heating mode for solar collector systems is pool heating. We need to heat up a relative cold water at strong sunshine. Certainly, precise calculations are needed at the design of floor and pool heating systems. A base rule is that 1m2 of solar collector is enough for 5m2 of floor heating support. This is just a rule of thumb, the base of the design has to be the heat loss of the house). At pool heating there are separate rules for in and outdoor pools, covered or non-covered types.
At apartment houses, factories, hotels, large hot water consumers the hot water generation by solar collector is especially efficient and economic. The proportional investment cost of a large system is lower and the efficiency can be higher due to a stable consumption. If design and installed properly such a large system can be up to 50% more efficient than the systems on family houses.

How much can be used from sunshine at winter?

At low temperature heating systems – like floor- and wall-heating, based on experience 1m2 solar collector can support 5m2 of heating. Concerning the needed heat, the system can cover 1-15% of the thermal energy during winter and 30-60% during summer and fall. Especially the vacuum tube collectors can generate a significant energy at cold, but clear winter days. The cloudy weather cannot be compensated, if there is no sunshine it is not the fault of the solar collector.

Complete systems for hot water generation, heating support and pool heating

If required we do everything for you form planning, quoting and installation. You can save time and money if you buy everything from one hand, but we can serve you with separate units as well. For environmental cautious customers with average income we deliver the high quality products. We help choosing the optimal equipment for your demand. Our appliances are certified products (Solar Keymark), accepted all over Europe. 

The solar collectors do not need maintenance; they can even be used at -20 °C. Based on experience the lifetime of the products is 25-30 years. The repair of any mechanical damages at vacuum tube collectors can be done fast, without dismounting the equipment.
Our solar controllers are easy to use, thanks to graphic symbols. We can choose from 7 type of controllers based on the needed task. The simplest device is to generate only hot water (2 sensor, 1guided output). The most complex system has 14 sensor and 6 outputs. We plan every system according to customer requirements aligned with the task and the equipment already available in your home.

 

Parts of the solar system:

  • solar collectors and holders
  • pump station
  • expansion tank and safety devices
  • tanks  (hot water and buffer)
  • solar controller
  • solar fluid
  • hot water mixing valve

Planning, production and installation of solar collectors

Jüllich Glas Solar – Reach the sun!

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